As a universal and holistic religion that not only regulates the ritual worship, but also has the rules and foundations of faith for Muslims, from small to large affairs, such as love, zakat, prayer, inheritance, marriage and many again. For this reason, the main function of the 5 pillars of Islam and the six pillars of faith always practiced by Muslims is vital. Basically the Shari’a of Islam according to the Koran regulates the human relationship with God and human relationships with humans and other living beings.
Understanding Islamic Law
Understanding Islamic law or Islamic Shari’a is a system of rules based on the revelation of Allah SWT and hadist about the behavior of people who can already be burdened with recognized and believed obligations, which is binding for all adherents. And this refers to what the Apostle has done to execute it totally. Shari’a according to the term means the laws commanded by Allah for His people brought by a Prophet, whether related to belie
Islamic according to language means the path through which mankind goes to Allah SWT. And Islam is not just a religion that teaches about how to worship to God alone. The existence of a rule or system of provisions of Allah SWT to regulate human relationship with Allah SWT. and human relationship with each other. The rule comes from all Islamic teachings, especially the Qur’an and Hadist.
Understanding the source of Islamic law
The definition of Islamic law is the Shari’a which means the rule of God for His people brought by a Prophet , both the law relating to belief aqidah as well as the laws relating to the deeds committed by Muslims altogether.
Sources of Islamic Laws
Islamic law is not just a theory but is a rule to be applied in the joints of human life. Because of the many problems encountered, generally in the field of religion that often makes Muslims think that tends to the difference. That is why the source of Islamic law as a solution, which is as follows:
The first source of Islamic law is the Qur’an, a Muslim holy book that was revealed to the last prophet, the Prophet Muhammad through the Angel Gabriel. The Qur’an contains contents containing orders, prohibitions, suggestions, stories of Islam, provisions, wisdom and so on. The Qur’an explains in detail how man should live his life in order to create a society of noble character. Thus, the verses of the Qur’an became the main basis for establishing a Shari’a.
The second source of Islamic law is Al-Hadist, ie everything that is based on the Prophet Muhammad. Be it words, behavior, silence. In Al-Hadist there are rules that detail all the rules that are still global in the Qur’an. The word hadist which experienced the expansion of meaning so that it is synonymous with the hadist it can mean any word (word), deeds, decrees and approval of Rasulullah SAW which is used as a decree or Islamic law.
- Ijma ‘
The agreement of all mujtahid scholars at one time after the Prophet’s time on a matter in religion. “And ijma ‘accountable is what happened in the days of Companions, Tabiin (after Companions), and Tabi’ut Tabiin (after Tabiin). Because after their time the scholars have dispersed and the numbers are many, and more and more disagreements, so it is not certain that all scholars have agreed.
The fourth source of Islamic law after the Al-Quran, Al-Hadith and Ijma ‘is Qiyas. Qiyas means to explain something that there is no argument nashnya in Al quran or hadith by comparing something similar to something that want to know the law.
This means that if a texts have already demonstrated the law of a case in Islam and it has been known through one method of knowing the legal matter, then there is another case similar to the case of the texts in such a case, then the case law is likened to Existing case law.
Kinds of Islamic Law
Each of the joints of human life, there are rules of rules that must be obeyed. If it is in society then the law of society must be upheld. Similarly, embracing Islam, the religion that has rules. And the first rule we must understand is the rule of God. All Divine rules in all forms of the laws of human life are contained in the Qur’an, which has been explained in the hadist of the Prophet . The following are various Islamic laws,
Compulsory is something deeds that if done will get a reward and if left behind will be tortured. Examples of deeds that have compulsory laws are five-time prayers, wearing hijab for women, fasting, performing Hajj for the able, respecting non-Muslims and more.
The Sunnah is something that the religion requires to do but its demands do not reach the level of mandatory or simple deeds that if done will get a reward and if left behind will not get torture or punishment. Examples of deeds that have a sunnah law are prayers performed before / after fardhu prayer, reciting the Prophet’s prayers, issuing alms and so on.
Haram is a deed which, if reconverted, will be tortured and if left behind will get a reward. Examples of deeds that have illegal laws are adultery, drinking alcohol, playing gambling, stealing, corruption and more.
Makruh is an act that is felt if leaving it is better than doing it. Examples of these makruh actions are eating onions, smoking and so on.
Mubah is an act that is permitted by religion between doing it or leaving it. Examples of mubah are sports, running a business, breakfast .
The purpose of the Islamic Law System
The source of Islamic Sharia law is Al-Quran and Al-Hadist. As a law and a provision that Allah revealed, Islamic law has established lofty goals that will preserve human dignity, which is as follows.
- Maintenance of offspring
Islamic Sharia law forbids free sex and requires sanctions for the perpetrators. This is to preserve and maintain the lineage. Thus, a child born through the official marriage way will get his right according to the lineage of his father.
- Maintenance over reason
Islamic law forbids everything that can be intoxicating and debilitating memories, such as liquor or alcohol and drugs. Islam encourages every Muslim to study and develop his thinking skills. If his mind is disturbed because of the alcoholic binge, his mind will be weak and his thinking activities will be disrupted.
- Maintenance of glory
The Islamic Shari’a regulates the problem of slander or accusations and forbids to talk about others. This is to keep the glory of every human so that he is protected from things that can contaminate his good name and honor.
- Maintenance of the soul
Islamic law has established sanctions for murder, against anyone who kills a person for no good reason. In Islam, human life is precious and should be kept safe.
- Maintenance of property
Islamic has imposed sanctions on theft cases with hand cuts for the perpetrators.
- Maintenance of religion
Islamic law gives freedom for every human to practice worship according to his belief. Islam has never forced anyone to embrace Islam. However, Islam has sanction for every apostate Muslim so that other human beings do not play with their religion.
To complete the post on the notion of Islamic law, the source and purpose, the Islamic Shari’a begins to apply to adults or people who have adult, that is old enough, sensible and have received a religious call since the age of 9 years, for men and women when Already dreaming of wet (adult sign).